Sunday, October 7, 2007

Legal education in the Philippines

(See: wikipedia.org. Some of the data in this Wikipedia article may need verification ).



Legal education in the Philippines is developed and offered by Philippine law schools, supervised by the Legal Education Board, and regulated by the Commission on Higher Education and the Supreme Court of the Philippines.

Law degree programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. As such, admission to law schools requires the completion of a bachelor's degree, with a sufficient number of credits or units in certain subject areas.

Graduation from a Philippine law school constitutes the primary eligibility requirement for the Philippine Bar Examinations, the national licensure examination for practicing lawyers in the country. The bar examination is administered by the Supreme Court during the month of September every year.

Members of the bar in the Philippines are required to take mandatory continuing legal education in order to continue practicing their profession.

Legal education in the Philippines normally proceeds along the following route:

  • Undergraduate education (usually 4 years)
  • Law school (usually 4 years)
  • Admission to the bar (usually by taking a Philippine bar exam)
  • Legal practice and mandatory continuing legal education

History

The University of Santo Tomas established its faculties of canon law and civil law in in 1733 From 1734 to 1800, of only 3,360 students, only 29 graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 with the degree of Licentiate in Civil Law and 3 with the degree of Doctor of Civil Law in that university.[1]

In 1890, the Universidad Literia de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public. In 1899, Felipe Calderon founded the Escuela de Derecho de Manila and adopted the name Manila Law College in 1924. The University of the Philippines opened its College of Law in 1910. There were around 50 Filipino and American students.[2] Justice Sherman Moreland of the Supreme Court of the Philippines was named its first Dean, but after he ultimately declined the position, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, who is recognized as the college's first permanent dean.


Legal Systems

The Philippine legal system is an amalgamation of the world's major systems which are the Roman Civil Law and the Canon Law of the Catholic Church inherited from the Spanish, EnglishCommon Law from the United States, and Islamic Law.


Law degree programs

Law degrees in the Philippines may be classified into three types--professional, graduate level, and honorary.


Professional law degrees

In order to be eligible to take the bar examinations, one must complete one of the two professional degrees: The Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) program or the Juris Doctor (J.D.) program. Advanced degrees are offered by some law schools, but are not requirements for admission to the practice of law in the Philippines.

  • Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) - The Ll.B. is the most common law degree offered and conferred by Philippine law schools. It is a standard four-year law program covering all bar exam subjects. Almost all law schools follow a standard LL.B. curriculum, wherein students are exposed to the required bar subjects. Other schools, like the University of the Philippines College of Law, allow students to substitute electives for bar review subjects offered in the fourth year of study. [3]


Graduate law degrees

Beyond the J.D. or Ll.B., members of the Philippine bar have the option of pursuing graduate degrees in law.

There are two kinds of doctoral programs in law offered in the Philippines:


Honorary law degrees

Some Philippine universities also confer the honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degree. It is given to famous individuals who, in the discretion of the awarding institution, were found to have made significant contributions to a certain field, or to the improvement of society or development of the conditions of mankind in general. Honorary law doctorates in the past include:


Practicality

While advanced law degrees (LL.M., D.C.L., S.J.D., LL.D.) may elevate a lawyer's standing in academic settings, the basic law degree (LL.B., J.D.) remains the most important academic qualification to be admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines.[18]


Ecclesiastical law degrees

A few Roman Catholic seminaries and graduate schools offer degree programs in Canon Law, an ecclesiastical program that is not required in the Philippine Bar Examinations.The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law runs the oldest academic programs of this kind. Its Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.) and Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.) programs are open to priests, nuns, theologians, and even to lay people (i.e., trial court judges, law deans, family lawyers etc.). Judges of the Roman Catholic Marriage Tribunal typically hold academic degrees in the field.[19] Degrees in canon law, strictly speaking, are not considered law degrees in the Philippines.


Developments

There is a move among members of the Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS) to convert their Ll.B. programs into J.D. curricula.[4] There are currently two possible directions for the change: First, the conversion of Ll.B. programs through adopting a model substantially similar to the J.D. curriculum introduced by the Ateneo School of Law (the J.D. Programs of the FEU-La Salle consortium and the University of Batangas Law School are of this mold), and second, simply changing the name of the degree conferred from “Ll.B.” to “J.D.” while essentially retaining the same course offerings as those in the DECS Model Law Curriculum (DECS Order No. 27, series of 1989).[4]


Admission to the practice of law

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines has given the Supreme Court the sole power to admit individuals to the practice of law in the Philippines.[20] This power is exercised through a Bar Examination Committee, an ad hoc academic group tasked to formulate questions, administer proceedings, grade examinations, rank candidates, and release the results of the Philippine Bar Examination.

To be eligible to take the national bar exam, a candidate must be a Filipino citizen, at least twenty-one years of age, and holder of a bachelor's degree and a law degree obtained from a government recognized law school in the Philippines. Graduates of law schools from other countries must obtain a law degree from the Philippines to qualify for the Philippine Bar.[21]


Philippine Bar Examinations

The Philippine Bar Examinations is the national licensure exam for admission to the practice of law. It is conducted during the four Sundays of September of every year. It is arguably the hardest and the most media-covered of all government licensure examinations in the country.[22] It is also reputedly one of the hardest bar examinations in the world.[23]

For candidates intending to practice Islamic law in the Philippines, the Special Bar Exams for Shari’a Court Lawyers is given every two years. The Supreme Court Bar Office conducts the exam while the Office of Muslim Affairs determines the qualification and eligibility of candidates to the exams.[24]


Attorneys-at-law

To be a full-fledged lawyer in the Philippines and be eligible to use the title Attorney, a candidate must graduate from a Philippine law school, take and pass the Philippine Bar Examinations, take the Attorney's Oath, and sign his name in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court.[25]

The full names of lawyers are found in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, and in a similar list included in a Supreme Court publication entitled Law List.[26]


Legal Education Board

The Legal Education Board supervises all law schools and continuing legal education providers in the Philippines.[27] The Board is headed by a Chairman who is a retired justice of a collegiate court (i.e., Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Sandiganbayan, Court of Tax Appeals, etc.). Regular members of the Board include a representative from each of the following:[28]

  • Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP)
  • Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS)
  • Philippine Association of Law Professors (PALP)
  • active law practitioners
  • bonafide law students

The Board has made legal reforms which include--the stricter selection of law students and law professors; improvements in quality of instruction and facilities of law schools; provisions for legal apprenticeship of law students; and the requirement of attendance to continuing legal education seminars for practicing attorneys.[29]


Mandatory Continuing Legal Education

Lawyers with names appearing in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, unless disbarred, are all members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP). [30]

However, to be IBP members of good standing, lawyers are required to complete, every three years, at least thirty-six hours of continuing legal education seminars approved by the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Committee (MCLE). Members who fail to comply shall pay a non-compliance fee, and shall be listed as a delinquent member.[31]

The Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office, established by the Supreme Court, is the official government agency tasked to implement compliance with the MCLE requirement.[32]


Philippine law schools

There are eighty-nine law schools[33] legitimately operating throughout the Philippines. They include independent law schools, resident colleges, and affiliated units of much larger private and public universities:[34]

Name Location
Adamson University College of Law 900 San Marcelino St., Manila

Andres Bonifacio College College Park, Dipolog City
Aquinas University College of Law 2-S King's Building, JAA Penaranda St., Legazpi City
Araullo University College of Law Bitas, Cabanatuan City
Arellano University Law Foundation Taft. Ave. cor. Menlo St., Pasay City
Ateneo de Davao University School of Law Jacinto St., Davao City
Ateneo de Manila University School of Law Ateneo Professional Schools Building, Rockwell Drive, Rockwell Center, Makati City
Basilan State University College of Law Basilan City
Bicol University College of Law Daraga, Albay
Bukidnon State College Malabalay, Bukidnon
Cagayan Colleges-Tuguegarao Cagayan
Cagayan State University Tuguegarao, Cagayan
Camarines Norte School of Law Itomang, Talisay, Camarines Norte
Central Philippine University College of Law Jaro, Iloilo City
Christ the King College Calbayog City
Colegio dela Purisima Concepcion IBP Office, Hall of Justice, Roxas City
Cor Jesus College Digos, Davao del Sur
Cordillera College Bugayan, La Trinidad, Benguet
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University College of Law San Fernando, La Union
Dr. Vicente Orestes Romualdez Education Foundation, Inc. Tacloban City, Leyte
East Central Colleges San Fernando City, Pampanga
Far Eastern University Institute of Law Nicanor Reyes Sr. St., Sampaloc, Manila
(The La Salle-FEU MBA-JD Program is offered at De La Salle Professional Schools, RCBC Plaza, Ayala Ave., Makati City. It is offered in consortium with the De La Salle Graduate School of Business.)
Fernandez College of Arts & Technology Gil Carlos St., Baliuag, Bulacan
Foundation University Dr. Miciano St., Dumaguete City
Harvardian Colleges San Fernando, Pampanga
Holy Name University College of Law Tagbilaran City, Bohol
Jose Rizal University College of Law 82 Shaw Blvd., Mandaluyong City
Leyte Colleges Zamora St., Tacloban City
Liceo de Cagayan University College of Law Rodolfo N. Pelaez Blvd., Carmen, Cagayan de Oro
Luna Goco Colleges Calapan, Oriental Mindoro
Luzon Colleges Quezon
Lyceum of the Philippines University College of Law L.P. Leviste St., Makati City
Lyceum-Northwestern University College of Law Dagupan City, Pangasinan
Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) Sales St., Sta. Cruz, Manila
Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law R. Hidalgo St., Quiapo, Manila
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation College of Law Foundation St., Lucena City
Masbate Colleges Masbate, Masbate
Medina Colleges Ozamiz City
Mindanao State University College of Law Marawi City
Misamis University College of Law Bonifacio St., Ozamiz City
New Era University College of Law St. Joseph St., Milton Hills Subd., Bgy. New Era, Quezon City
Northeastern College Santiago City, Isabela
Northwester University College of Law Laoag City
Notre Dame University College of Law Notre Dame Ave., Cotabato City
Pagadian College of Criminilogy & Sciences Pagadian City
Palawan State University College of Law Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa, Palawan
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law Intramuros, Manila
Philippine Advent College Sindangan, Zamboanga del Norte
Philippine Law School F.B. Harrison St., Pasay City
Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Law Mabini Campus, Santa Mesa, Manila
Samar Colleges Catbalogan, Samar
San Beda College of Law Mendiola St., San Miguel, Manila
San Beda College of Law-Alabang Don Manolo Boulevard, Alabang Hills Village, Muntinlupa City
San Pablo Colleges San Pablo City
San Sebastian College-Recoletos College of Law Claro M. Recto Ave., Manila
Saint Louis College San Fernando City, La Union
St. Louis University College of Law Bonifacio St., Baguio City
Silliman University College of Law Hubbard Ave., Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental
Southwestern University College of Law Urgillo St., Sambag District, Cebu City
Tabaco Colleges Tabaco, Albay
University of Batangas College of Law Batangas City
University of Bohol College of Law Tagbilaran City
University of the Cordilleras (formerly the Baguio Colleges Foundation) College of Law Harrison Rd., Baguio City
University of the East College of Law Claro M. Recto Ave., Manila
University of Eastern Philippines College of Law Catarman, Northern Samar
University of Iloilo College of Law Iloilo City
University of Manila College of Law Mv. delos Santos, Manila
University of Mindanao College of Law Bolton St., Davao City
University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos College of Law Iriga City
University of Nueva Caceres College of Law Dagupan City, Pangasinan
Unversity of Perpetual Help-Rizal College of Law Las Piñas City
University of Perpetual Help System College of Law Biñan, Laguna
University of the Philippines College of Law Malcolm Hall, U.P. Diliman Campus, Quezon City
University of San Agustin College of Law Gen. Luna St., Iloilo City
University of San Carlos College of Law P. Del Rosario St., Cebu City
University of San Jose-Recoletos College of Law Cebu City
University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law Main Building, U.S.T. Campus, España St., Sampaloc, Manila
University of Southern Philippines Foundation College of Law Cebu City
University of Visayas College of Law Cebu City
Urios College San Francisco St. cor. J.C. Aquino Ave., Butuan City
Virgen de los Remedios College 10 Fontaine St., East Bajac-bajac, Olongapo City
Virgen Milagrosa University College of Law Zamboanga City
Western Mindanao State University College of Law Corales Ave., Cagayan de Oro City
Zamboanga A.E. College J.S. Alano St., Zamboanga City


Notable law schools



Oldest law schools



The eleven oldest law schools are as follows:[35]

  • University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, established in 1734, is the oldest law school in the Philippines. In 1734, the University of Santo Tomas opened a Faculty of Civil Law and a Faculty of Canon Law. From 1734 to 1800 (66 years), out of 3,360 students, only 40 students graduated from various law programs: 29 in Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 in Licentiate in Civil Law, and 3 in Doctor of Law, reflecting the rigid training in these courses. The school has produced four Philippine Presidents, three Vice Presidents, and six Chief Justices of the Philippine Supreme Court.
  • Universidad Literia Filipinas, established in 1898, was the second oldest law school in the country. It is no longer operating. The university was established in Malolos, Bulacan and offered progams in law and notary public. The school later moved to Tarlac.
  • Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) was established in 1899. Don Felipe Calderon, author of the 1899 Malolos Constitution, founded the school. In 1924, the school was renamed the Manila Law School. It was further renamed Manila Law College Foundation.
  • Southern College of Law was established in 1935. It is no longer operating.
  • Arellano Law College (now Arellano Law Foundation) was established in 1938. Former Court of Appeals Presiding Justice Manuel Gaviola, Former Congressman and Senator Francisco Sumulong and Former Congressman Jose Zafra] attended the school.
  • Francisco Law School was established in 1940. It is now defunct.
  • San Beda College of Law,was founded in 1948. Over the years, it has produced senators, justices of collegiate courts, judges of lower courts, active lawyers and law professors. It has also achieved one of the highest bar passing rates and largest number of law graduates among law schools in the country.[3] A famous alumnus, Florenz D. Regalado, is a Retired Justice of the Supreme Court, an established author, and the holder of the highest bar exam grade in the history of the bar exams in the Philippines.


Bar Performance

The performance of law schools in the annual bar exam can be measured using two criteria:


Bar passing rate

The bar passing rate is the proportion of successful bar exam passers in relation to the total number of bar exam takers coming from a particular law school. The national bar passing rate (proportion of all bar exam passers in relation to all bar exam takers) changes every year, and has gone from an all-time high of 75.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16.59% in 1999.[36]

Law schools with the highest average bar passing rates include:


In the 2006 bar examinations, Basilan State University's lone bar candidate passed, giving the school a 100% passing rate.[39]


Bar topnotchers

Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Every year, the Supreme Court releases the bar top ten list. The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.[40]

Schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers)[41] include:

Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without graduating from any Philippine law school:

In the past, non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar. However, the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars allow only Philippine law graduates to take the bar, necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreign law graduates from taking part in the exercise.


Law schools with prestigious alumni

The quality of law schools is often measured by the prestige, influence, or wealth of famous law alumni.[42]

Some of the law schools and their famous alumni include:

  • Far Eastern University Institute of Law alumni:[44]
    • Corazon Aquino - former President of the Philippines
    • Artemio Panganiban - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
    • Court of Appeals Presiding Justice and Remedial Law expert Oscar Herrera
    • Jose Nolledo - Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission, Delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention
    • Salome Montoya - former Presiding Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Eliezer R. De los Santos - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Juan Q. Enriquez Jr. - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Edilberto Sandoval - Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan (Philippine Anti-Graft Court)
    • Manuel Collantes - former Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to the United Nations
    • Sedfrey Ordonez - former Solicitor General, Secretary of Justice, Ambassador to the United Nations, and Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights
    • Edgar Ilarde - former Senator of the Philippines
    • Wenceslao Lagumbay - former Senator of the Philippines
    • Neptali Gonzales Jr. - former Mayor of Mandaluyong City and Majority Floor Leader of the Philippine House of Representatives
    • Manuel J. Laserna Jr. (3rd placer, 1984 bar exams, 90.95%; AB, Ll.B, Ll.M) and Myrna C. Mercader. CPA, DBA, Ph.D. - FEU law professors and bar reviewers (1985-2006), trial lawyers, bar leaders, and founders of the Las Pinas City Bar Association (2001).
    • Diosdado "Dado" Arroyo - youngest son of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
  • San Beda College of Law alumni:[45]
    • Florenz D. Regalado - former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court; holder of the highest bar exam grade
    • Raul Roco - former Senator, Secretary of Education, IBP President, and 1998 & 2004 Presidential candidate
    • Rene Saguisag - former Senator of the Philippines
    • Antonio Eduardo Nachura - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court, former Solicitor General
    • Antonio Martinez - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
    • Romeo Callejo - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
    • Justo P. Torres, Jr. - former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
    • Bienvenido L. Reyes - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Noel G. Tijam - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Jose C. Mendoza - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Jose C. Reyes Jr. - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Fernanda Lampas-Peralta - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Eduardo Joson - former Governor of Nueva Ecija


External links


See also

6 comments:

  1. Philippine Bar Examination
    From Wikipedia, the free
    encyclopedia


    The Philippine Bar Examination is the professional licensure examination for lawyers in the Philippines.

    It is the only professional licensure exam in the country that is not supervised by the Professional Regulation Commission. The exam is exclusively administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines through the Supreme Court Bar Examination Committee.
    Admission requirements

    A bar candidate must meet the following academic qualifications:

    * Holder of a professional degree in law from a recognized law school in the Philippines[1]
    * Holder of a bachelor's degree with academic credits in certain required subjects from a recognized college or university in the Philippines or abroad.[2]

    He should also meet certain non-academic requisites:[3]

    * A Filipino citizen.
    * At least twenty-one (21) years of age.
    * A resident of the Philippines.
    * Satisfactory evidence of good moral character (usually a certificate from the dean of law school or an immediate superior at work).
    * No charges involving moral turpitude have been filed against the candidate or are pending in any court in the Philippines.

    Committee of Bar Examiners

    The Supreme Court appoints memberships in the Committee of Bar Examiners, the official task force for formulating bar exam questions, instituting policy directives, executing procedures, grading bar examination papers, and releasing the results of the annual bar examination.[4]

    The committee is chaired by an incumbent Justice of the Supreme Court, who is designated by the Supreme Court to serve for a term of one year. The members of the committee includes eight (8) members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines, who also hold office for a term of one year.[5] While the Justice who shall act as Chairman is immediately known, committee members must exert every effort to conceal their identities until the oath-taking of the successful bar examinees, approximately six months after the bar exam.[6]


    Bar review programs

    Candidates who meet all the admission requirements usually enroll in special review classes after graduating from law school. These programs are held from April to September in law schools, colleges, universities, and review centers.

    Program schedule, content, and delivery differs from one review program to another. Lecturers in these programs are called bar reviewers. They are usually full-time professors and part-time professorial lecturers in law schools and universities. Most review programs invite incumbent and retired justices and high ranking public officials both as a marketing tool and as a program innovation.[7]


    Venue and itinerary

    The examinations are held during the four Sundays of September of every year in the campus of De La Salle University in Taft Avenue, Manila.

    Examinations for the eight bar subjects follow a fixed schedule:[8]

    * First Sunday:

    o Political and International Law (morning session)
    o Labor and Social Legislation (afternoon session)

    * Second Sunday:
    o Civil Law (morning session)
    o Taxation (afternoon session)

    * Third Sunday:

    o Mercantile Law (morning session)
    o Criminal Law (afternoon session)

    * Fourth Sunday:

    o Remedial Law (morning session)
    o Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises (afternoon session)


    Coverage

    The examination covers the following topics, popularly known as the bar subjects:[9]

    * Political and Public International Law
    o Constitutional Law
    o Political Law
    o Administrative Law (only the basic doctrines, excluding implementing rules abd regulations of government agencies)
    o Law on Public Officers
    o Public Corporations
    o Suffrage
    o Public International Law

    * Labor and Social Legislation
    o Labor Law (Labor Code of the Philippines, excluding the implementing rules and regulations)
    o Social Legislation
    + Social Security Law
    + Revised Government Service Insurance Act of 1977 (including Employees Compensation Act of 1977)
    + Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law

    * Civil Law
    o Civil Code of the Philippines (excluding the Code of Muslim Personal Laws, Water Code, Rental Law, Law on Sale of Subdivision of Lots and Condominiums)
    o Family Code of the Philippines (including the Child and Youth Welfare Code)
    o Property Registration Decree (excluding the Public Land Law)
    o Conflict of Laws (Private International Law)

    * Taxation
    o General principles of Taxation
    o Republic Act No. 1125, creating the Court of Tax Appeals
    o National Internal Revenue Code (including the Expanded Value Added Tax or EVAT)
    o Tariff and Customs Code (excluding Arrastre and Classification of Commodities)

    * Mercantile Law
    o Negotiable Instruments Law and Other Allied Laws
    + Negotiable Instruments Law (with the Uniform Currency Act)
    + Merchants and Commercial Transactions (including Articles 1 to 63 of the Code of Commerce, Retail Trade Law, Bulk Sales Law)
    + Letters of Credit under the Code of Commerce
    o Insurance Code
    o Transportation Laws
    + Common Carriers (Articles 1732 to 1766 of the New Civil Code)
    + Commercial Contracts for Transportation Over Land (Articles 349 to 379 of the Code of Commerce)
    + Maritime Commerce
    + Public Service Act
    o Corporation Law
    + Corporation Code
    + Securities Act
    + Banking Laws
    # Laws on Secrecy of Bank Deposits
    # Deposit Insurance Corporation
    # Trust Receipts Law (excluding the General Banking Act)
    + Other Special Laws
    # Chattel Mortgage Law
    # Warehouse Receipts Law
    # Laws on Intellectual Creations
    * Copyright Law
    * Patent Law
    * Trademark Law
    # Insolvency Law
    # Truth in Lending Act

    * Criminal Law
    o Revised Penal Code (Books I & II excluding penalties for specific felonies)
    o Indeterminate Sentence Law
    o Probation Law
    o Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act
    o Anti-Fencing Law
    o Bouncing Checks Law
    o Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972
    o Heinous Crimes Law (excluding penalties)

    * Remedial Law
    o Revised Rules of Court
    o 1991 Revised Rule on Summary Procedure
    o Local Government Code on Conciliation Procedures (Chapter VII)

    o Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980 (excluding purely administrative provisions, Military Justice Law, Judiciary Act of 1948, and the Law Reorganizing the Court of Agrarian Relations)

    * Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises
    o Legal Ethics
    o Judicial Ethics
    o Code of Professional Responsibility
    o Grievance Procedures (Rules 139-B, Revised Rules of Court)
    o Forms



    Grading system

    The eight bar subjects are separately graded. Each subject contributes to the general average in the following proportion:[10]

    * Civil Law - 15%
    * Labor and Social Legislation - 10%
    * Mercantile Law - 15%
    * Criminal Law - 10%
    * Political and International Law - 15%
    * Taxation - 10%
    * Remedial Law - 20%
    * Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises - 5%

    The passing average fixed by law is 75%, with no grade falling below 50% in any bar subject.[11]



    Passing average vs. Passing rate

    The passing average is the minimum grade in the exam required to be admitted to the practice of law. The passing rate is the proportion of total number of bar passers in relation to the total number of bar examinees. It is usually computed on two levels--the national level (national bar passing rate), and the law school level (law school passing rate).

    In the past, passing averages were considerably lower to admit more new lawyers (i.e. 69% in 1947, 69.45% in 1946, 70% in 1948). Since 1982, the passing average has been fixed at 75%. This has led to a dramatic decrease in the national passing rate of bar examinees, from an all-time high of 75.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16.59% in 1999. In recent years, the annual national bar passing rate ranges from 20% to 30%.[12]



    Law school passing rates

    Law schools with the highest bar passing rates include:[13]

    Schools with more than 30 examinees:

    * Ateneo de Manila University School of Law - 80-95% passing rate
    * San Beda College of Law - 70-85% passing rate
    * University of the Philippines College of Law - 60-75% passing rate
    * University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law - 40-70% passing rate
    * Far Eastern University - 40 - 70% passing rate

    Schools with 30 or less examinees:

    * Ateneo de Davao University School of Law - 50-80% passing rate
    * University of Perpetual Help-Rizal College of Law - 50-80% passing rate


    Bar topnotchers

    Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Every year, the Supreme Court releases the bar top ten list. The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.[14]

    Schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers) include:[15]

    * University of the Philippines College of Law - forty-nine (49) bar topnotchers
    * Ateneo de Manila University School of Law - eighteen (18) bar topnotchers
    * Philippine Law School - seven (7) bar topnotchers
    * University of Manila College of Law (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) - six (6) bar topnotchers
    * San Beda College of Law - six (6) bar topnotchers
    * Far Eastern University Institute of Law - four (4) bar topnotchers (Amante Liberato placed number 5 in the 1996 Bar Exams)
    * University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law - four (4) bar topnotchers (Diokno, Concepcion, Macapagal,Maneja)
    * University of the Cordilleras (formerly Baguio Colleges Foundation) College of Law - two (2) bar topnotchers
    * Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) - one (1) bar topnotcher
    * Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law - one (1) bar topnotcher
    * Divine Word College - one (1) bar topnotcher
    * University of the East College of Law - one (1) bar topnotcher


    Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without graduating from any Philippine law school:[16]

    * Jose Diokno - former Senator of the Philippines; 1st placer, 1945 bar exams (Mr. Diokno, who tied for Number One with Mr. Jovito Salonga in the 1945 Bar Exams, would have graduated from the Philippine Law School had not World War II supervened. Mr. Diokno's success in the bar exams is further underscored by the fact that he was also under-age){{fact]}
    * Carolina C. Griño-Aquino - former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; 1st placer, 1950 bar exams (Ms. Aquino, wife of Mr. Ramon Aquino, 6th placer in 1939 Bar Exams, is officially a graduate of the UP College of Law although she took her first two years of law school at the Colegio de San Agustin)[citation needed]

    In the past, non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar. However, the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars only allow Philippine law graduates to take the bar, necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreign law graduates from taking part in the exercise.[17]



    Highest and lowest topnotcher grades

    Among all bar topnotchers, the highest general average is 96.7%, attained by Florenz D. Regalado (future Supreme Court Associate Justice) of San Beda College of Law in 1954. The lowest is 84.10%, obtained by Adolfo Brillantes of Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) in 1920.[18]



    Highest scores in specific bar subjects

    While no bar examinee has ever reached a 100% general average, several bar examinees have garnered perfect and near-perfect grades in specific bar subjects.

    In 1953, Juan Ponce Enrile (future Senator) of the University of the Philippines College of Law earned 100% in Taxation Law and placed 11th in the bar exams of that year.[19]

    In 1955, Raul Gonzales (future Secretary of Justice) of the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law earned 99% in Remedial Law and 95% in International Law. However, he did not place in the top ten.[20]

    In 1997, Maria Celia H. Fernandez of the University of the Philippines College of Law earned 100% in Legal Ethics and emerged as the year's bar topnotcher.[21]

    In 2001, Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada, that year's valedictorian of the University of the Philippines College of Law obtained a perfect score of 100% in Remedial Law, the highest weighted of the bar subjects. The difference (3.75%) between his final bar examination score (93.80%) and that of the second-placer, Jesus Paolo U. Protacio (90.05%), that year's valedictorian of the Ateneo de Manila University School of Law, is the highest of all time. That year's valedictorian of the San Beda College of Law, Adonis V. Gabriel, placed 8th (88.25%).[citation needed]

    In 2005, Gladys V. Gervacio of the University of Perpetual Help-Rizal earned 100% in two bar subjects--Legal Ethics and Labor Law. She placed 6th in the bar exams of that year.[22]



    Increasing difficulty

    The difficulty of the recent bar examinations, compared to exams of the past, can be attributed to the following factors:[23]

    * The growing volume of Philippine case and statutory laws is unprecedented. Laws, jurisprudence, and legal doctrines of the past constitute only a small fraction of contemporary Philippine legal materials, which are increasing on a daily basis.[24]

    * The 75% passing average with no grade lower than 50% in any subject is already fixed by law. Actual candidates who scored 74.99% in the general average were not admitted to the practice of law, unless they retake the bar exams.[25]

    * The Three-Failure Rule is now in place. Candidates who have failed the bar exams for three times are not permitted to take another bar exam until they reenroll and pass regular fourth-year review classes and attend a pre-bar review course in an approved law school.[26]

    * The Five-Strike Rule is implemented since 2005. The rule limits to five the number of times a candidate may take the Bar exams. The rule disqualifies a candidate after failing in three examinations. However, he is permitted to take fourth and fifth examinations if he successfully completes a one year refresher course for each examination.[27]

    * The four-year bachelor's degree is required before admission to law school. Hence, every bar examinee has to hold at least two degees--one in law and one in another field. In the past, law schools readily admit high school graduates and two-year Associate in Arts degree holders.[28]

    After the end of the Second World War, the passing rate in the succeeding years was remarkably high, ranging from 56 to 72% percent. However, after Associate Justice J.B.L. Reyes, a noted scholar, was appointed Chairman of the 1955 Bar Examinations, the passing rate for that year dropped dramatically to 26.8%, with a mortality rate of 73.2%. That ratio has been invariably maintained in the 50+ years since.[29]



    Waiting period

    The largely essay-type exams are manually checked by members of the Committee of Bar Examiners. Candidates have to wait from the last Sunday of the bar exams in September up to the date of the release of results, which traditionally happens before or during the Holy Week (the last week of March or the first week of April) of the following year.

    During this period, candidates (who already hold law and bachelor's degrees) may opt to work in law firms and courts as legal researchers, teach in liberal arts and business colleges, function in companies and organizations using their pre-law degrees (i.e. Communication Arts, Accounting, Economics, Journalism, etc.), help run the family business, or take a long vacation.[30]



    Admission of Successful Bar Examinees

    The Office of the Bar Confidant of the Philippine Supreme Court releases the Official List of Successful Bar Examinees, usually during the last week of March or the first week of April of every year. Candidates whose names appear in the list are required to take and subscribe before the Supreme Court the corresponding Oath of Office.[31]

    Candidates shall take an Oath of Office and sign their names in the Roll of Attorneys of the Supreme Court.[32] The oath-taking is usually held in May at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC) with a formal program where all Justices of the Supreme Court, sitting en banc, formally approve the applications of the successful bar candidates. The eight bar examiners are officially introduced to the public. A message to the newly inducted lawyers is delivered by one of the justices. Candidates who made the bar top ten list are also introduced and honored. The deans of all Philippine law schools are requested to attend the ceremony and grace the front seats of the plenary hall.[33]



    Bar Top Ten List

    The Office of the Bar Confidant releases an official Bar Top Ten list together with the list of names of all successful bar examinees. The Bar Top Ten contains the names of the candidates who garnered the ten highest general averages in the bar exam for that year. The highest ranking candidate in the list is known as the bar topnotcher. The list has always been the subject of much media attention and public speculation.[34]

    Making a place in the list is widely regarded as an important life achievement, an attractive professional qualification, and a necessary improvement in a lawyer's professional and social status.[35]



    Famous bar top ten placers

    Prominent lawyers who made the bar top ten include:[36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]



    Presidents and Vice Presidents

    * Manuel Roxas - former Philippine President; 1st placer, 1913 Bar Exams
    * Diosdado Macapagal - former Philippine President; 1st placer, 1936 Bar Exams
    * Ferdinand Marcos - former Philippine President; 1st placer, 1939 Bar Exams
    * Jose P. Laurel - former Philippine President; 2nd placer, 1915 Bar Exams
    * Sergio Osmeña - former Philippine President; 2nd placer, 1903 Bar Exams
    * Manuel L. Quezon - former Philippine President; 4th placer, 1903 Bar Exams
    * Carlos P. Garcia - former Philippine President; 7th placer, 1923 Bar Exams
    * Emmanuel Pelaez - former Philippine Vice President; 1st placer, 1938 Bar Exams
    * Arturo Tolentino - former Philippine Vice President; 2nd placer, 1934 Bar Exams



    Supreme Court and Court of Appeals Justices

    * Roberto Concepcion - former Philippine Chief Justice; 1st placer, 1924 Bar Exams
    * Claudio Teehankee - former Philippine Chief Justice; 1st placer, 1940 Bar Exams
    * Pedro Yap - former Philippine Chief Justice; 1st placer, 1946 Bar Exams
    * Ricardo Paras - former Philippine Chief Justice; 2nd placer, 1913 Bar Exams
    * Andres Narvasa - former Philippine Chief Justice; 2nd placer, 1951 Bar Exams
    * Jose Yulo - former Philippine Chief Justice; 3rd placer, 1913 Bar Exams
    * Artemio Panganiban - former Philippine Chief Justice; 6th placer, 1960 Bar Exams
    * Ramon Aquino - former Philippine Chief Justice; 9th placer, 1939 Bar Exams
    * Jose P. Laurel - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 2nd placer, 1915 Bar Exams
    * J.B.L. Reyes - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1922 Bar Exams
    * Cecilia Muñoz Palma - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1937 Bar Exams
    * Ambrosio Padilla - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 3rd placer, 1934 Bar Exams
    * Amuerfina Melencio Herrera - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1947 Bar Exams
    * Irene Cortes - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 9th placer, 1948 Bar Exams
    * Carolina A. Griño-Aquino - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1950 Bar Exams
    * Isagani A. Cruz - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 8th placer, 1951 Bar Exams
    * Florentino Feliciano - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1952 Bar Exams
    * Florenz D. Regalado - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1954 Bar Exams
    * Tomas Matic Jr. - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1955 Bar Exams
    * Sabino Padilla Jr. - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 5th placer, 1957 Bar Exams
    * Adolfo Azcuna - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 4th placer, 1962 Bar Exams
    * Antonio Eduardo Nachura - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 7th placer, 1967 Bar Exams
    * Presbitero Velasco, Jr. - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1971 Bar Exams
    * Antonio Carpio - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1975 Bar Exams
    * Bienvenido V. Reyes - former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justice; 5th placer, 1954 Bar Exams
    * Salome A. Montoya - former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justice; 6th placer, 1954 Bar Exams
    * Alicia V. Sempio-Dy - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 5th placer, 1950 Bar Exams
    * Oscar M. Herrera - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 8th placer, 1953 Bar Exams
    * Demetrio Demetria - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 2nd placer, 1964 Bar Exams
    * Mario Guariña III - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 2nd placer, 1967 Bar Exams
    * Lucas Bersamin - Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 9th placer, 1973 Bar Exams
    * Arturo D. Brion - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 1st placer, 1974 Bar Exams
    * Celia Librea-Leagogo - Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 5th placer, 1981 Bar Exams



    Senators and Representatives

    * Manuel Roxas - former Philippine Senate President and Speaker of the House of Representatives; 1st placer, 1913 Bar Exams
    * Manuel L. Quezon - former Philippine Senate President; 4th placer, 1903 Bar Exams
    * Arturo Tolentino - former Philippine Senate President; 2nd placer, 1934 Bar Exams
    * Ferdinand Marcos - former Philippine Senate President; 1st placer, 1939 Bar Exams
    * Jovito Salonga - former Philippine Senate President; 1st placer, 1944 Bar Exams
    * Neptali Gonzales - former Philippine Senate President; 9th placer, 1949 Bar Exams
    * Ernesto M. Maceda - former Philippine Senate President; 10th placer, 1956 Bar Exams
    * Franklin Drilon - former Philippine Senate President; 3rd placer, 1969 Bar Exams
    * Lorenzo Sumulong - former Philippine Senator; 1st placer, 1929 Bar Exams
    * Jose Diokno - former Philippine Senator; 1st placer, 1944 Bar Exams
    * Renato V. Saguisag (Rene Saguisag) - former Philippine Senator; 6th placer, 1963 Bar Exams
    * Sergio Osmeña - former Speaker of the House of Representatives; 2nd placer, 1903 Bar Exams
    * Jose Yulo - former Speaker of the House of Representatives; 3rd placer, 1913 Bar Exams
    * Aguedo F. Agbayani - former Pangasinan Representative; 5th placer, 1947 Bar Exams
    * Antonio Eduardo Nachura - former Samar Representative; 7th placer, 1967 Bar Exams
    * Ronaldo B. Zamora - San Juan Representative; 1st placer, 1969 Bar Exams
    * Prospero Nograles - Davao City Representative; 2nd placer, 1971 Bar Exams
    * Arturo D. Brion - Assemblyman, Philippine National Assembly; 1st placer, 1974 Bar Exams
    * Gilberto Eduardo Gerardo C. Teodoro Jr. - former Tarlac Representative; 1st placer, 1989 Bar Exams



    Appointees and career service officials

    * Roberto Concepcion - Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; 1st placer, 1924 Bar Exams
    * Lorenzo Sumulong - Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; 1st placer, 1929 Bar Exams
    * Arturo Tolentino - Member, Philippine Civil Code Commission; former Minister of Foreign Affairs; 2nd placer, 1934 Bar Exams
    * Ambrosio Padilla - Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; 3rd placer, 1934 Bar Exams
    * Diosdado Macapagal - President, Philippine Constitutional Convention of 1971; 1st placer, 1936 Bar Exams
    * Cecilia Muñoz Palma - President, Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986; Chairperson, Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office; 1st placer, 1937 Bar Exams
    * Jovito Salonga - former Chairman, Presidential Commission on Good Government; 1st placer, 1944 Bar Exams
    * Amuerfina Melencio Herrera - Chancellor, Philippine Judicial Academy; Chairperson, Legal Publications Committee, Supreme Court Centenary Celebrations; 1st placer, 1947 Bar Exams
    * Alicia V. Sempio-Dy - Member, Philippine Civil Code Revision Committee; former Commissioner, National Commission on Women; 5th placer, 1950 Bar Exams
    * Andres Narvasa - Chairman, Preparatory Commission for Constitutional Reform; 2nd placer, 1951 Bar Exams
    * Gabriel Singson - former Governor of the Central Bank of the Philippines; 2nd placer, 1952 Bar Exams
    * Florentino Feliciano - Chairman, Feliciano Commission investigating the Oakwood Mutiny; 6th placer, 1952 Bar Exams
    * Florenz D. Regalado - Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; 1st placer, 1954 Bar Exams
    * Jose Nolledo - Delegate, 1971 Constitutional Convention & Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; 3rd placer, 1958 Bar Exams
    * Haydee Yorac - former Chairperson, Presidential Commission on Good Government; former Commissioner, Commission on Elections; 8th placer, 1962 Bar Exams
    * Adolfo Azcuna - Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; 4th placer, 1962 Bar Exams
    * Joaquin G. Bernas - Member, 1986 Constitutional Commission; Member, Feliciano Commission investigating the Oakwood mutiny; 9th placer, 1962 Bar Exam
    * Sergio A. Apostol - Chief Presidential Legal Counsel; 7th placer, 1958 Bar Exams
    * Ismael G. Khan Jr. - former Spokesperson, Philippine Supreme Court; 6th placer, 1959 Bar Exams
    * Antonio Eduardo Nachura - former Solicitor General; 7th placer, 1967 Bar Exams
    * Fulgencio S. Factoran Jr. - former Executive Secretary; 9th placer, 1967 Bar Exams
    * Jose Mario Buñag - former Bureau of Internal Revenue Commissioner; 2nd placer, 1968 Bar Exams
    * Ronaldo B. Zamora - former Executive Secretary; 1st placer, 1969 Bar Exams
    * Franklin Drilon - former Secretary of Labor and Employment; 3rd placer, 1969 Bar Exams
    * Arturo D. Brion - Secretary of Labor and Employment; 1st placer, 1974 Bar Exams
    * Antonio Carpio - former Chief Presidential Legal Counsel; 6th placer, 1975 Bar Exams
    * Avelino Cruz Jr. - former Secretary of National Defense; 7th placer, 1977 Bar Exams
    * Simeon Marcelo - former Philippine Ombudsman; 5th placer, 1979 Bar Exams
    * Manuel Antonio J. Teehankee - former Undersecretary of Justice; Ambassador to the World Trade Organization; 1st placer, 1983 Bar Exams
    * Antonio M. Bernardo - former Bureau of Customs Commissioner; 2nd placer, 1988 Bar Exams
    * Gilberto Eduardo Gerardo C. Teodoro Jr. - Secretary of National Defense; 1st placer, 1989 Bar Exams
    * Persida V. Rueda-Acosta - Chief Public Attorney of the Philippines; 5th placer, 1989 Bar Exams
    * Ruben Carranza Jr. - Commissioner, Presidential Commission on Good Government; 8th placer, 1990 Bar Exams
    * Maria Celia H. Fernandez - former Chief, Presidential Management Staff; 1st placer, 1997 Bar Exams
    * Janet T. Abuel - Regional Director, Department of Budget and Management; 1st placer, 1998 Bar Exams
    * Edwin R. Enrile - former Assistant Executive Secretary, Office of the President; Deputy Executive Secretary, Office of the President; 1st placer, 1999 Bar Exams
    * Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada - former Assistant Chief of Staff, Office of the Vice President; Director, Social Housing Finance Corporation; 1st placer, 2001 Bar Exams



    Local officials

    * Pablo P. Garcia - former Governor of Cebu; 3rd placer, 1951 Bar Exams
    * Aguedo F. Agbayani - former Governor of Pangasinan; 5th placer, 1947 Bar Exams
    * Roldan Dalman - former Governor of Batangas; 6th placer, 1975 Bar Exams
    * Pablo John F. Garcia - Mayor of Cebu City; 4th placer, 1993 Bar Exams



    Academe

    * Custodio O. Parlade - President Emeritus, Philippine Dispute Resolution Centre; Lecturer and Bar Reviewer; 4th placer, 1959 Bar Exams
    * Joaquin G. Bernas - former President, Ateneo de Manila University; Dean Emeritus, Ateneo School of Law; 9th placer, 1962 Bar Exam
    * Jovito Salonga - former Dean, Far Eastern University Institute of Law; 1st placer, 1944 Bar Exams
    * Neptali Gonzales - former Dean, Far Eastern University Institute of Law; 9th placer, 1949 Bar Exams
    * Andres Narvasa - former Dean, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law; 2nd placer, 1951 Bar Exams
    * Norberto S. Gonzales - Dean, Manuel L. Quezon University School of Law; 5th placer, 1958 Bar Exams
    * Agustin O. Benitez - former Dean, University of the East College of Law; 1st placer, 1959 bar Exams
    * Virgilio B. Jara - Dean, San Beda College of Law; 5th placer, 1962 Bar Exams
    * Cesar L. Villanueva - Dean, Ateneo School of Law; 2nd placer, 1981 Bar Exams
    * Jose Jesus G. Laurel - former Dean, Lyceum of the Philippines College of Law; 6th placer, 1981 Bar Exams
    * Roy Joseph M. Rafols - former Dean, Palawan State University College of Law; 2nd placer, 1984 Bar Exams
    * Pacifico N. Castro - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 8th placer, 1954 Bar Exams
    * Manuel T. Muro - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer, former Trial Court Judge; 6th placer, 1955 Bar Exams
    * Roberto San Jose - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 1st placer, 1966 Bar Exams
    * Ruben F. Balane - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 2nd placer, 1966 Bar Exams
    * Jacinto D. Jimenez (Jack Jimenez) - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 3rd placer, 1968 Bar Exams
    * Arturo De Castro - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 3rd placer, 1970 Bar Exams
    * Rene Gorospe - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 2nd placer, 1979 Bar Exams

    * Manuel J. Laserna Jr. - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer (Far Eastern University, Manila, 1985-2006); 3rd placer, 1984 Bar Exams (90.95%); trial lawyer; Bar leader; founder of the Las Pinas City Bar Association (2001); and managing partner of the Laserna Cueva-Mercader & Associates Law Offices (LCM Law, Las Pinas City).

    * Abelardo T. Domondon - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 4th placer, 1985 Bar Exams, graduate of Adamson University College of Law
    * Roberto A. Gana - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 5th placer, 1986 Bar Exams
    * Jose Maria G. Hofileña - Law Professor and Bar Reviewer; 10th placer, 1987 Bar Exams
    * Michael G. Aguinaldo - Law Professor; 7th placer, 1992 Bar Exams
    * Anna Leah Fidelis T. Castañeda - Law Professor; 1st placer, 1993 Bar Exams
    * Maria Socorro Z. Manguiat - Law Professor; 10th placer, 1993 Bar Exams
    * Maria Paz Romana S. Angeles - Law Professor; 10 placer, 1994 Bar Exams
    * Carla E. Santamaria-Seña - Law Professor; 5th placer, 1995 Bar Exams
    * Shennan A. Sy - Law Professor; 6th placer, 1995 Bar Exams
    * Arnold De Vera - Law Professor; 8th placer, 1987 Bar Exams
    * Florin T. Hilbay - Law Professor; 1st placer, 1999 Bar Exams
    * Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada - Professor of Law (UP and Ateneo); 1st placer, 2001 Bar Exams
    * Solomon F. Lumba - Professor of Law (UP); 4th placer, 2001 Bar Exams
    * Adonis V. Gabriel - Professor of Law (SBC); 8th placer, 2001 Bar Exams
    * Samson S. Alcantara - Practicing Lawyer; Professor and Bar Reviewer (MLQU); Author-Philippine Labor and Social Legislation; 3rd placer, Bar Exams

    [edit] Private sector

    * Manuel Montecillo - Name Partner, Siguion Reyna Montecillo & Ongsiako (oldest law firm); 1st placer, 1948 Bar Exams
    * Manuel S. Abello - Co-founder, Angara Abello Concepcion Regala & Cruz (ACCRALAW) ; 1st placer, 1958 Bar Exams
    * Nelly Favis-Villafuerte - Editor, Manila Bulletin; 7th placer, 1959 Bar Exams
    * Avelino V. Cruz - youngest to top the bar, 1st placer, 1962 Bar Exams
    * Mercedita V. Santiago-Nolledo - Corporate Secretary, Ayala Corporation; 2nd placer, 1965 Bar Exams
    * Rodolfo D. Robles - General practitioner; 1st placer, 1967 Bar Exams
    * Januario B. Soller Jr. - Co-founder, Soller Chain of Pawnshops; 1st placer, 1972 Bar Exams
    * Jesus M. Manalastas - Name Partner, PECABAR Law Firm; 2nd placer, 1972 Bar Exams
    * Victor P. Lazatin - Partner, ACCRALAW; 3rd placer, 1972 Bar Exams
    * Barbara Anne Migallos - Name Partner, Roco Buñag Kapunan Migallos Law Firm; Co-founder, Migallos & Luna Law Office; 3rd placer, 1979 Bar Exams
    * Mario Luz Bautista - Co-founder, Poblador Bautista Reyes Law Firm; 6th placer, 1979 Bar Exams
    * Arthur Lim - former National President, Integrated Bar of the Philippines; 3rd placer, 1981 Bar Exams
    * Rey C. Espinosa - Partner, SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan; Executive Director, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company; President and CEO, ePLDT; Vice Chairman, Philweb Corporation; 1st placer, 1982 Bar Exams
    * Menardo L. Guevarra - Co-founder, Serapio Guevarra Medialdea Law Firm; 2nd placer, 1985 Bar Exams
    * Edward S. Serapio - Co-founder, MOST Law; 7th placer, 1985 Bar Exams
    * Marlon Manuel - Director, SALIGAN (non-profit legal assistance group); 5th placer, 1994 Bar Exams
    * Patricia-ann T. Prodigalidad - Junior Partner, ACCRALAW; 1st placer, 1996 Bar Exams
    * Maria Celia H. Fernandez - In-house counsel, Yuchengco group of companies; 1st placer, 1997 Bar Exams
    * Eliseo M. Zuñiga Jr. - Associate, Quisumbing Torres Law Firm; 1st placer, 2000 Bar Exams
    * Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada - Associate, SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan; 1st placer, 2001 Bar Exams
    * Arlene Maneja - Associate, Siguion Reyna Montecillo & Ongsiako; 1st placer, 2002 Bar Exams
    * Aeneas Eli S. Diaz - Associate, Villaraza & Angangco (the firm servicing President Arroyo's family); 1st placer, 2003 Bar Exams
    * January A. Sanchez - Senior Associate, Puno & Puno; 1st placer, 2004 Bar Exams
    * Joan A. De Venecia - Associate, SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan; 1st placer, 2005 Bar Exams
    * Noel Neil Q. Malimban - Business Law Lecturer and Reviewer, University of the Cordilleras; 1st placer, 2006 Bar Exams

    [edit] 1st place in the Philippine Bar Examinations
    Name Year School Hometown
    1900
    1901
    1902
    1903
    1904
    1905
    1906
    1907
    1908
    1909
    1910
    1911
    1912
    Manuel Roxas 1913 University of the Philippines Roxas City, Capiz
    Manuel Goyena 1914 Manuel L. Quezon University
    Francisco Villanueva 1915 University of the Philippines
    Paulino Gullas 1916 University of the Philippines
    Felipe Ismael 1917 University of the Philippines
    Alejo Labrador 1918 University of the Philippines
    Gregorio Anonas 1919 Philippine Law School
    Adolfo Brillantes 1920 Escuela de Derecha
    Pablo C. Payawal 1921 University of the Philippines
    Amando L. Velila 1922 University of the Philippines
    Roque Desquitado 1923 University of the Philippines
    Roberto Conception 1924 University of Sto. Tomas Manila
    Rafael Dinglasan 1925 University of the Philippines
    Eugeniano Perez 1926 Philippine Law School
    Cesar Kintanar 1927 University of the Philippines
    Filomeno B. Pascual 1928 Philippine Law School
    Lorenzo Sumulong 1929 University of the Philippines Manila
    Tecla San Andres 1930 University of the Philippines
    Jose Leuterio 1931 University of the Philippines
    Hermenegildo Atienza 1932 University of the Philippines
    Lope C. Quimbo 1933 University of Manila
    Marciano P. Catral 1934 Philippine Law School
    Enrique Estrellado 1935 University of the Philippines
    Diosdado Macapagal 1936 University of Sto. Tomas Lubao, Pampanga
    Cecilia Monuz-Palma 1937 University of the Philippines Bauan, Batangas
    Emmanuel Pelaez 1938 University of Manila Medina, Misamis Oriental
    Ferdinand Marcos 1939 University of the Philippines Sarrat, Ilocos Norte
    Claudio Teehankee 1940 Ateneo de Manila University Manila
    Emmet P.D. Shea 1941 University of the Philippines
    1942
    1943
    Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno 1944 University of the Philippines(Salonga)/ Special(Diokno) Pasig (Salonga)
    Gregoria Cruz 1945 University of the Philippines
    Pedro Yap 1946 University of the Philippines San Isidro, Leyte
    Amuerfina Melencio Herrera 1947 University of the Philippines
    Manuel Montecillo 1948 Far Eastern University
    Anacleto C. Mañgaser 1949 Philippine Law School
    Carolina A. Griño-Aquino 1950 Special
    Vicente R. Acsay 1951 University of Manila
    Pedro Samson C. Animas 1952 University of the Philippines
    Leonardo A. Amores 1953 University of Manila
    Florenz D. Regalado 1954 San Beda College Concepcion, Iloilo
    Tomas P. Matic, Jr. 1955 Far Eastern University
    Francisco C. Catral 1956 San Beda College
    Gregorio R. Castillo 1957 University of the Philippines
    Manuel G. Abello 1958 University of the Philippines
    Agustin O. Benitez 1959 Far Eastern University
    Ismael Andres 1960 Manuel L. Quezon University
    Avelino V. Cruz 1961 San Beda College
    Deogracias G. Eufemio 1962 University of the Philippines
    Cornelio C. Gison 1963 Ateneo de Manila University
    Jesus P. Castelo 1964 San Beda College
    Victor S. de la Serna 1965 San Beda College
    Roberto San Jose 1966 University of the Philippines
    Rodolfo D. Robles 1967 San Beda College
    Oscar B. Glovasa 1968 University of Bohol
    Ronaldo B. Zamora 1969 University of the Philippines
    Romulo D. San Juan 1970 University of the Philippines
    Henry R. Villarica 1971 University of the Philippines
    Januario B. Soller, Jr. 1972 Ateneo de Manila University
    Vicente R. Solis 1973 Ateneo de Manila University
    Arturo D. Brion 1974 Ateneo de Manila University Manila
    Nicanor B. Padilla, Jr. 1975 University of the East
    Enrique Y. Teehankee 1976 University of the Philippines
    Virgilio B. Gesmundo 1977 Ateneo de Manila University
    Cosme D. Rosell 1978 University of the Philippines
    Gregorio M. Batiller, Jr. 1979 Ateneo de Manila University
    Rafael R. Lagos 1980 University of the Philippines
    Irene Ragodon-Guevarra 1981 Ateneo de Manila University
    Ray C. Espinosa 1982 Ateneo de Manila University
    Manuel Antonio J. Teehankee 1983 Ateneo de Manila University
    Richard M. Chiu 1984 Ateneo de Manila University
    Janette Susan L. Peña 1985 University of the Philippines
    Laurence L. Go 1986 Ateneo de Manila University
    Mario P. Victoriano 1987 Ateneo de Manila University
    Maria Yvette O. Navarro 1988 University of the Philippines
    Gilberto Eduardo Gerardo C. Teodoro, Jr. 1989 University of the Philippines
    Aquilino L. Pimentel III 1990 University of the Philippines Cagayan de Oro City
    Joseph P. San Pedro 1991 Ateneo de Manila University
    Jayme A. Sy, Jr. 1992 Ateneo de Manila University
    Anna Leah Fidelis T. Castañeda 1993 Ateneo de Manila University
    Francisco Noel R. Fernandez 1994 University of the Philippines
    Leonor Y. Dicdican 1995 University of the Philippines
    Patrcia-ann T. Progalidad 1996 University of the Philippines
    Ma. Cecilia H. Fernandez 1997 University of the Philippines
    Janet B. Abuel 1998 University of the Cordilleras
    Edwin R. Enrile 1999 Ateneo de Manila University
    Eliseo M. Zuñiga, Jr. 2000 University of the Philippines
    Rodolfo Ma. A Ponferrada 2001 University of the Philippines
    Arlene Maneja 2002 University of Sto. Tomas
    Aeneas Eli S. Diaz 2003 Ateneo de Manila University
    January A. Sanchez 2004 University of the Philippines
    Joan A. De Venecia 2005 University of the Philippines
    Noel Neil Q. Malimban 2006 University of the Cordilleras

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